The Piracy chapter of Free Culture discusses the war on piracy caused by the Internet. The ability of the Internet to spread information does not follow copyright laws. People’s piracy is their property and to defend it there have been many laws and new technologies to protect against the Internet. Of course new weapons like viruses are created to get around such defenses to give some people what they want. So the better understand this war we must look at the word of ‘piracy.’ “Creative work has a value, whenever I use, or take, or build upon the creative work of others, I am taking from them something of value. Whenever i take something of value from someone else, I should have their permission. The taking of something from someone else without permission is wrong. It is a form of piracy.” (pg 18) So the copyright law was made and modified constantly. But the law does not just regulate copying of items, it regulates everything to do with the Internet. An over barring law. It just depends on which side you look at.
In Lawrence Lessig’s Free Culture, the introduction begins with the Wright Brothers. Mainly a discussion on American Rights to property that we have the right to own the surface of the land and everything that is beneath it. However when the Wright Brothers flow into the sky that day, things began to change. Do we have the right to own the sky. A doctrine that was written says that the sky is a public highway free to anyone. “The law adjusts to the technologies of our time.”
Edwin Howard Armstrong was also mentioned as one of the greatest inventors of our time with radio technology. He is the creator of the FM radio. He had found a way to remove static from the radio for more sound clarity. The intro also talks about the war between AM and FM radio frequencies and their companies. The meaning of this Intro was to discuss the rights to things we can’t even see, yet we have rights of ownership.
The last chapter in this book discusses open work and the relationship between the creator and reader of art. This chapter is based on a book “The Open Work” by Umberto Eco. He redefines the word code to encyclopedia to try and describe the message attempting to be transferred to the reader of the message. he also talks about the meaning of information. “Eco is interested in using the mathematical science of information theory to measure the relationship between the amount of information that the reader receives and the openness of a work.” (pg 168) Eco has created a mathematical formula for what is contained in a message. This formula helps translate the information in the message to the reader. However the sign has to be information or an action for it to work.
This chapter is the trash art chapter. Photos of broken things with lots of dirt have signifigance too. “To understand why soemthing has been rejected we need to rebuild a picture of the systems of signification which lie beneath the decision to reject it from the system.” (pg 148) Even dirt has a system and pattern to it. Disorder is discussed in this chapter because it destroys patterns, yet has potential to be a symbol of power. Not just dirt has power, some art pieces are made from many pieces, like rusty old parts of a car made into something else. The word Rubbish is defined here as when a “transient object gradually loses value until it is worthless. It remains at this valueless state until someone rediscovers it and transforms it into a durable object.” (pg 153) So rubbish art work can be both an official language and an unofficial language for what the piece translates too.
In chapter 7 symbolic creativity is described. “The multitude of ways in which young people use, humanise, decorate and invest with meaning their common and immediate life spaces and social practices-personal styles and choice of clothes; selective and active use of music, TV, and magazines” (pg 132) This chapter talks about how young people today knowing or not describe themselves by surrounding themselves with art forms. Music is one of the most common ways people describe themselves where nearly everyone listens to specific music. young people describe themselves by the way they draw themselves, make forms of music, and what activities they do.
Where as chapter 5 was about different language, chapter 6 is about differences of unspoken and unofficial language. “All of us face the problem of a ‘differential fit’ between how we see ourselves and how others see us.” (pg 108) unofficial language is also language with no words. one example it football fans with there colors, most don’t say we support that team but the colors the fans wear says that they do. School colors have the same deal. Graffiti is another unspoken language. the book drives deep into what are the creator of graffiti and why they do it. most of those so are Vandals are youths with spray paint. For the reason why they do it, there are many explainations. one of the main ones is self-expression. to so how different they are or to describe themselves. the book also says that Vandals do it for fun or excitement.
Ok, this is chapter 5 in Visible Signs. this is the chapter of “official language.” With this chapter, it contains a bit of geography for the official language of an area is like English and German. An example is California are many languages in its culture, yet English is the one the majority speak and the communities want it that way, however Spainish is increasing greatly. language is an art because of the different translations of art work that people get and that different languages gives different symbols that in themselves is an art. Their flags are an art and so are pictures of their capitols.
Chapter 4 of Visible Signs is the chapter of text, image and codes. Digital codes are codes that have a set of symbols that are different from one another. the example given to us by the book is that the alphabet is the most commonly known digital code. An analogue code is symbols that don’t really vary in likeness and it is sometimes hard to tell the symbols apart. an example of this is music and dance. In addition to the two code types there are three messages that also help explain the relationship between text and image. the Linguistic message, “the text itself, usually in the form of a slogan or a caption to the image. Reading the linguistic message requires a previous knowledge of the particular language such as English or French.” (pg 75) Iconic Message is ” a symbolic message and works on the level of connotation. The reader is playing a part in the reading by applying their knowledge of the systematic coding of the image. (pg 75) The last message is non-coded iconic message which is”described as a photograph for instance could be described as a message without a code, one simply reads the medium as itself; it is a photograph. This works like denotation.” (pg 76)
In Visible Signschapter 3 talks about reading signs and the readers of signs. “the meaning of words can change depending on who reads them” (pg 54) this quote is basically what this chapter is about, of people interpret signs is part of semiotics. an example is that art work would appear different to you than to a child. many people get many different meanings from digital art just because those people are different from one another. Barthes believed that there are two levels of signification concerning the relationship with signs and readers. Denotation is what the picture contains and Connotation which is how the picture is taken. So if there is an image of a car that would be Denotation, just what we see in the picture. Connotation would be the lighting, size of the picture, the framing, focus and so on. Some people may see some things like that as bad lighting if they think its so dark and so on, but others may think it symbolises a beautiful dark car.
In the book Visible Signs by David Crow, chapter 2 covers the meaning of signs. According to Peirce there are 3 different categories of signs to be aware of; Icon, index, and symbol. the icon resembles the sign, such as a picture of an object. Index is the link between the sign and the object it represents. an example would be traffic construction signs. the signs that tell you to move into the next lane is in direct link with the physical world. Symbols have no logical connection with the sign and its meaning. This means that the reader must already know what the sign means to understand it. Also Peirce has created 3 levels of signs. Firstness- is the sense of something, or the feeling of something. An example is feeling blue. Secondness- is the level of fact, meaning the physical relationship between the sign and reality. Thirdness-is the mental level, which means the combination of symbols to mean something.